Among the many Advantages of Photovoltaic Solar Panels, the most important is that solar energy is truly renewable. In fact, a standard PV system for your home converts solar energy into electricity through photovoltaic cells. Without burning fuel and without emissions.
And as mentioned, the most important benefits of solar panels are that they provide free, clean energy. But there are many other advantages too. In fact they are very versatile and electricity can easily be produced where it is needed. Thus high-voltage transmission lines and transformer substations are a thing of the past. Then there is the economic factor given by the lower cost of installation and reduced maintenance. Because a system for the production of electricity made up of solar panels is quick and easy to install. It also has no moving mechanical parts, so we don’t have to replace the oil or drive belts over the years. Last but not least, it does not emit exhaust fumes or make any noise. So we can decide to install a solar photovoltaic system even on the roof of a children’s hospital.
Uses and Users of PV Solar Systems
Until a few years ago, solar panels were only used as a source of electricity for small electronic devices. But as environmental awareness and solar panel efficiency increase, solar power has become a major source of electricity. For both homes and industrial buildings. So today, the term solar plant to the common people means a self-contained solar system designed to generate enough electricity for home use. Of course, 1000 W solar systems only meet basic needs such as lighting, TV, notebook, refrigerator and little else. While the 5000 W solar systems are also able to power the air conditioning and hot water systems.
How Photovoltaic Solar Panels Work in Your Home
Solar panels are an awesome way to power your home with clean, renewable energy and cut down on your electricity bill. The photovoltaic system is made up of photovoltaic modules that are connected together in series. Which makes solar panels easy to transport, install and gives them high flexibility in power. The cell in the panel converts light into electricity by absorbing photons during the day. This releases an electron and leaves a positive hole in the silicon atom. The released electron and the positive hole are kept apart by the p/n layer. So when an electrical circuit is created between the front and back of the layer, current flows.
The amount of electrical power extracted from a cell is proportional to the intensity of the sunlight. And obviously from the efficiency of the solar cells. That’s why when you have to choose a solar system, read the specifications of the photovoltaic solar panels carefully. in addition to high efficiency, the PV panels must have cells in EVA (ethyl vinyl acetate) covered with a waterproof film. And of course all certifications such as ISO 9001, CE, TUV IEC 61215 and IEC 61730.
To power your home with a Solar Photovoltaic System in addition to solar panels you will also need a solar controller and inverter. The controller is like the brain of the system. As it monitors the electricity grid and controls the electricity generation of the solar panels. While the inverter converts the direct current electricity produced by the PV panels into 110 – 220 V AC.
Where to Install PV Solar Panels
There are many factors to consider when it comes to deciding where to install solar panels. Of course the ideal position is one in which the PV panels are perpendicular to the sun for as many hours as possible. In fact, the right orientation produces the most energy per year. But in addition to the correct orientation of the solar panels, the site conditions must be taken into account. Such as whether or not the site is shaded, the costs of installing on an impervious surface, and the overall aesthetics of the area. Often, in fact, solar panels are mounted on an existing roof even if with a not exactly perfect orientation.
In this case a small power reduction in the performance is compensated by the ease of installation. A rule to remember is never to install photovoltaic panels in the shade of a building or a tree. Even if for a few hours a day.
How to Install Photovoltaic Solar Panels
There are 3 different ways to install solar PV systems. The first is the off-grid system suitable for rural areas where there is no public electricity grid. In this case the solar panels charge a large battery which has the task of providing electricity during the night.
While in large cities, solar systems are usually connected to the public grid. In fact the grid tied system is the right choice if you have a stable and reliable power grid. Because you can sell the energy produced in excess during the day to your operator and get a credit. This credit will greatly reduce your energy bill.
The third way is something in between the previous ones. The solar panels are connected to the national grid, but a small battery is still set up. This system is perfect for areas where the national grid is unreliable and power outages are common. During the day your home uses the energy generated by solar panels while excess energy recharges the battery. In this case, the battery is only an emergency power source during blackouts. In fact, at night, your home uses energy from the grid. And only in case of network problems does the controller switch to battery just like an off-grid system.
How to Maximize the Advantages of Photovoltaic Solar Panels
To maxime the Advantages of Photovoltaic Solar Panels, you first need to understand how much energy you use on a typical day. So you can size the solar panels, battery and inverter your home needs, A medium-sized house consumes about 500 Wh between the refrigerator, the television and some lights. Plus another 1000 – 2000 Wh when you turn on your air conditioning, oven or other energy-intensive appliances. So the minimum solar system needs to generate 12.000 W just to meet the baseline consumption in 24 hours. Added to this is the energy needed to power 1 hour of the oven, about 2000 watts. We have thus arrived at 14.000 watts as the minimum power required for a home.
Then if you use air conditioning or heat pump you will have to add another 1000 Wh. Which assuming a use of 10 hours a day, make 10.000 watts. So you need a solar system that produces at least 24.000 watts per day.
Size the Photovoltaic Solar Panels for Your Home
Now you need to check how many hours of solar radiation your latitude benefits. Naturally, this figure varies enormously between summer and winter. But to make an average we can assume that you take advantage of 6 hours of sunshine a day. So as to have the greatest Advantages of Photovoltaic Solar Panels, it is necessary to produce 24.000 W in 6 hours. It means that the power of the solar panels must be 4000 watts. That’s why the most widespread standard is a system with 5000 W solar panels.
You must take into account that the efficiency of the system is around 80%. Thus, during the day, the solar panels will generate electricity that covers by far the basic consumption of your home. And the excess energy is stored in the backup battery. So at night you will use the energy stored in the battery. You need to choose a battery large enough to store enough power to run all your appliances overnight. To calculate how much energy you need, look at the watts of your appliances and multiply them by the hours of use.